Historical outline of educational system in Australia

11/Jun/2010

Education in Australia with its six states and Federal Territory has two streams, schools managed and financed by Government, which 72% of Australian children attend and independent schools attended by the remaining 28% of children. Catholic Schools account for 81% of this latter number.

All that can be attempted in the space at our disposal is a sketch of the history of education in New South Wales and, more particularly, in the Archdiocese of Sydney. With the alteration of a few dates and names the review will serve as a guide to the wider history of all states and dioceses.

Mention has already been made of the critical state of Catholic education in Australia in the sixties of last century following on the Education Act of 1866 as a result of which the Brothers were urgently invited to come and help the Catholic Authorities.

The fears of the Church were fully justified with the passing of the Education Act of 1880 which withdrew state aid for denominational schools. The alternative was the creation of a separate Catholic School System and Archbishop Vaughan made a beginning in asking the Marist Brothers to staff four more of his Sydney schools. The scheme depended upon the full co-operation of teaching Orders and Vaughan's successor, Cardinal Moran, was successful in obtaining the help of several other Congregations of Brothers and Sisters.

In this way a Catholic School System was set up in the Archdiocese with a primary school for most parishes to which Catholic parents were bound to send their children and pay the small fees. Standards were usually good with the Congregations seeing to Teacher Education. Recruits for the Congregations came from these schools. The state schools were " free, secular and compulsory."

This remained the pattern until the second World War, though there was a rapid growth of secondary education after 1920. Since 1945 all schools have been under pressures such as increasing numbers, provision of accommodation and equipment, teacher staffing and training and allied needs. Accompanying these changes have been a much greater demand for secondary education and different approaches to the secondary course.

If the pressures on state-financed government school were great, the situation for independent schools, especially the Catholic parochial school system, was rapidly becoming intolerable by the 1960's. At this stage, a trickle of government aid began from the Federal Government. The Federal Government has since substantially increased this aid and has been joined in providing financial aid by the New South Wales State Government.

State aid, extended to all independent schools, helped the Catholic community in the preservation of the Catholic School System, since the grants enable the payment of lay teachers who, in one of the most significant developments in the Catholic System, now represent a large proportion of the teaching staffs. Vocations to the teaching congregations have not been in numbers sufficient to maintain the former ratio of religious to lay teachers.

The expansion of the Catholic School System has necessarily led to changes in the diocesan administration of education. The need for greater efficiency and more expert help in all phases of such administration has been widely recognised. Teacher education has been greatly expanded.

Lack of accommodation in Catholic schools has meant an increasing proportion of Catholic children attend state schools. The Church has endeavoured to meet this challenge also by a greater drive to enlist and train volunteers for religious instruction in state schools. Efforts, such as Camp Campbelltown, organised largely by our own Marist Brothers, are being made by the clergy, religious congregations and concerned lay people to help these Catholic children during weekends and vacations.

The history of Catholic education in Victoria and its capital, Melbourne, has been much the same in outline, as indeed in every state and capital in Australia. The early bishops and archbishops who fought prejudice and apathy to lay the foundations of Catholic education would be delighted to see what their efforts have produced. The bishops and priests who continued their work deserve great honour as do the loyal and self-sacrificing Catholic parents who have supported them.

Papal and episcopal pronouncements have continually stressed the fundamental importance and worth of Catholic education in the Christian living of the community and of the individual Catholic. With telling statistics, the recent publication of research into this very sector by a non-Catholic scholar, Hans Mol, gives strength and support to this view.

Notes: i. The large number of Schools, particularly in Sydney and in New Zealand which belong to the Dioceses.

ii. The comparatively small number of lay teachers. This is due to the inability to pay lay teachers while keeping the fees at a relatively low level.

iii. The comparatively large number of Primary Schools in New Zealand, where for many years the Brothers were confined mainly to Primary Schools.

SYSTEME EDUCATIF EN AUSTRALIE

 

En ce moment, il y a en Australie deux sortes d'écoles: l'école publique fréquentée par 72% de la population scolaire, et l'école privée que fréquentent les 28% restants. L'école catholique représente 81% de ce dernier chiffre.

La loi scolaire de 1880 supprima toute aide de l'Etat aux écoles confessionnelles. Les évêques surent faire appel aux congrégations enseignantes de frères et de sœurs pour établir un enseignement catholique indépendant. C'est ainsi que dans la plupart des paroisses il y eut une école catholique primaire à laquelle les parents catholiques étaient tenus d'envoyer leurs enfants et de payer des frais de scolarité modérés. Cet état de choses s'est poursuivi jusqu'à la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, avec un développement rapide des écoles secondaires à partir de 1920.

A partir de 1945, se firent sentir des exigences nouvelles, dues à l'accroissement du nombre des élèves, au besoin d'un matériel plus moderne et d'un personnel plus qualifié … Vers 1960, la situation des écoles catholiques, en particulier des écoles paroissiales, devenait impossible. C'est alors que le Gouvernement Fédéral commença à accorder une aide financière parcimonieuse. Cette aide s'est fortement accrue depuis. De plus, l'aide provenant des gouvernements des 6 Etats permet désormais de payer les professeurs civils.

Un gros effort est fourni pour donner l'instruction religieuse aux enfants qui, de plus en plus nombreux, fréquentent l'école publique.

 

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Hay, actualmente, en Australia, dos clases de escuelas: la escuela pública, a la cual asiste el 72% de la población escolar, y la escuela privada, que recibe el 28% restante. La escuela católica representa el 81% de esta última.

La ley escolar de 1880 suprimió la subvención del Estado a las escuelas religiosas. Los obispos acudieron a las congregaciones religiosas docentes para organizar la enseñanza católica independiente. En la mayor parte de las parroquias nació una escuela primaria, de pensiones módicas y a la cual las familias católicas tenían la obligación de mandar a sus hijos. Esta situación duró hasta la Segunda Guerra Mundial. Desde 1920 se desarrolla rápidamente la escuela secundaria.

A partir de 1945 se dejan sentir nuevas exigencias motivadas por el aumento de alumnos; por la necesidad de material más moderno y de un personal mejor calificado. Hacia el año 1960, el sostenimiento de las escuelas católicas y en especial el de las escuelas parroquiales, se hace imposible. El Gobierno Federal empieza, entonces, a conceder pequeñas ayudas económicas. Esta ayuda se ha acrecentado notablemente en la actualidad. La subvención proveniente de 6 Estados, permite pagar a los profesores civiles.

Se está haciendo un gran esfuerzo para llevar la instrucción religiosa a los jóvenes que, cada vez en mayor número, asisten a la escuela pública.

 

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Atualmente, há na Australia, dois tipos de escolas: a Escola Pública frequentada por 72% de populaçâo escolar e a Escola Particular, frequentada pelos outros 28%. A escola católica tem 81% do ensino particular.

Pela lei escolar de 1880, o Estado suprimía toda a ajuda às escolas confessionais. Os bispos, entâo recorreram as Congregaçôes de irmâos dedicados ao ensino para criarem um ensino católico independente. Por isso na maior parte das paróquias houve urna escola católica primaria onde os pais católicos deviam matricular os filhos sendo o pagamento da escolaridade moderado. Isto aconteceu até a Segunda Guerra Mundial havendo um rápido dsenvolvimento das escolas secundarias a partir de 1920.

Depois de 1945 apareceram novas exigencias com aumento do número de alunos, necessidade de modernizar o material e de pessoal mais competente … Por volta de 1960 a situaçâo das escolas sobretudo paroquiais, tornou-se impraticável. Entâo o Governo Federal estabeleceu urna pequeña ajuda financeira que depois viria aumentar muito. Além disso, a ajuda dada pelo Governo dos seis estados é suficiente por enquanto, para pagar aos professores civis. Também se está fazendo um grande esforço para instruir religiosamente as crianças que cada vez em maior número frequentam a Escola Pública.


RETOUR

Formation of the Province of Melbourne...

SUIVANT

Missions in the South Pacific islands since...