Nigéria

Bro. Walter Humphry

11/Jun/2010

DEVELOPPEMENT SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE DE L'AGRICULTURE DANS LES PAYS D'AFRIQUE OCCIDENTALE

 

L'agriculture est de première importance pour les pays de l'Ouest Africain, car elle constitue la ressource principale de ces régions. Le progrès économique sensible, en plusieurs de ces pays, dépendra de la rapidité avec laquelle on s'attaquera aux problèmes agricoles. Le développement de l'agriculture est intimement lié à l'industrialisation. Un marché interne s'y est établi, le rendement a augmenté au point qu'on peut déjà exporter certains produits, tels le caoutchouc, le bois, l'huile végétale.

L'ouest africain produit également quantité de produits alimentaires: céréales, légumes, riz, pommes de terre, patates douces, cassave, maïs, arachides, noix de coco, pois, millet et oignons. Il faut remarquer que l'agriculture occupe les quatre-cinquièmes de la population active du Nigeria.

Nous nous devons de signaler les efforts déployés par les Frères en faveur du développement agricole. Ils pratiquent ce qu'on appelle: « the small scale farming» ou exploitation agricole familiale, celle pratiquée par le fermier aidé des membres de sa famille. Cette exploitation, de rendement plus faible, permet de fonctionner avec des capitaux plus modestes, et offre de grands avantages lorsqu'elle est menée avec intelligence et constance.

Ainsi, les membres de la communauté mariste d'Orlu, sont-ils en train d'appliquer les méthodes modernes pour leurs cultures; ils ont déjà obtenu des résultats remarquables au cours de l'année écoulée. L'agriculture est une entreprise digne d'être soutenue et chaque communauté devrait en tenter l'expérience.

 

DESARROLLO SOCIO-ECONOMICO DE LA AGRICULTURA EN LOS PAISES DE AFRICA OCCIDENTAL

La agricultura ocupa las cuatro quintas partes de la población y constituye la base de la economía actual del Occidente Africano. De ella depende su porvenir industrial y económico. La industria, en su rama alimenticia, está favorecida por la abundancia de materias primas. La superproducción, sobre todo a partir de la independencia, permite exportar principalmente caucho y aceite de palma, que son las fuentes de ingreso más importantes para la promoción industrial.

Productos más abundantes: cereales, legumbres, arroz, patata dulce, cassava, maíz, cacahuete, nuez de coco, guisantes, mijo… La cantidad y variedad de productos hace que estos países se basten a sí mismos en materia alimenticia.

Los maristas y la expansión agrícola. Es de justicia hacer notar los esfuerzos desplegados por los Hermanos en favor del desarrollo agrícola. Practican el sistema de Explotación Agrícola Familiar, es decir, que el colono es ayudado por los miembros de la familia. El sistema, aunque con rendimiento más bajo, puede, no obstante, funcionar con capitales modestos y ofrece grandes ventajas cuando se sabe llevar con inteligencia y constancia.

Estas explotaciones familiares van incrementando sin cesar la producción, y las economías realizadas les permiten hacer frente al porvenir.

Los Hermanos maristas de la comunidad de Orlu han empezado a aplicar métodos modernos, obteniendo en un año resultados notables.

 

DESENVOLVIMENTO SÓCIO-ECONÓMICO DA AGRICULTURA NOS PAÍSES DA AFRICA OCIDENTAL

Nos países da Africa ocidental (Nigeria…), a agricultura é a base da economia das 4/5 partes da populacao. Déla depende o progresso industrial e económico. E já se estabeleceu um grande desenvolvimente interno. Aumentou o rendimento e certos produtos sao exportados, como a borracha, a madeira, o óleo vegetal.

Há urna quantidade imensa de produtos alimenticios: cereais, legumes, arroz, batata doce, batatinha, milho, cacau, cebóla, ervilha, mandioca, coco,…

Devemos, no entanto, assinalar os esforcos empreendidos pelos Irmaos no desenvolvimento agrícola. Praticam o que se chama: «the small scale farming» ou cultura agrícola familiar. Esta, de rendimento mais baixo, oferece grandes vantagens se levada com inteligencia e constancia.

Assim, os membros da comunidade marista de Orlu estao aplicando métodos modernos para suas culturas; e obtiveram resultados apreciáveis no ano passado. A agricultura é urna empresa digna de ser sustentada e cada comunidade deveria tentar urna experiencia neste sentido.

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NIGERIA:

The socio-economic impact of modern Agriculture

 

924.000 km² – 60.000.000 h.

 

Agriculture is of paramount importance to West African countries. It makes the greatest contributions to the National output and income of all the countries of West Africa. The efficiency and sense of urgency with which the problem of Agriculture is being tackled determine the considerably fast pace of economic advancement experienced in some countries of West Africa.

The development of the agricultural sector of the economy is also closely linked with industrialization in West Africa. Internal markets have developed for the increased output of export products. We are all aware of the vast number of able-bodied young men engaged in palm kernel or palm oil trade in the East Central State. Surplus produce now provide raw materials for the fast growing fruit, canning, textile, dairy, cigarettes, shoes, tyre and soap industries of West Africa.

The growth of processing industries for some of the farm products have improved their quality and raised their value. The result is that some of them such as rubber, timber, and ground nut oil earn the various countries more foreign exchange.

 

Major foodstuffs.

West African countries produce a lot of foodstuffs like rice, yams, cassava (garri), maize, groundnuts, cocoyam’s, beans, cow-peas, millet, and onions. This makes West Africa virtually self-supporting in domestic food requirements. The rise in the food grown for domestic consumption has allowed adequate supply of foodstuffs to the vast growing industrial and Commercial Centres.

 

Economic significance.

The economic significance of this near self-sufficiency in food requirements is that the scarce foreign exchange that would have been spent on the importation of food are being spent on capital goods which are essential for industrialization and agricultural expansion. Most of the capital projects which the various governments of West Africa have introduced since the attainment of Independence have been financed largely from the accumulated reserves of West African marketing boards. Another economic significance of Agriculture to West African countries is that it employs about four-fifths of West Africa's working population.

 

The nigérian marist community & modern agriculture.

It would be a bit unfair to round up this topic without defining our position in this agricultural modernization race. We are all familiar with the terms – ' large scale farming ' and ' small scale farming ' Small Scale farming is one in which the farmer, assisted by members of his family organises the production of farm products. Whether in Europe or Africa, such farmers usually employ small capital and few labour.

At this juncture it is necessary to elaborate on some of the advantages that accrue to a well co-ordinated agricultural enterprise.

West African agriculture holds a key position in the economic development of these countries. The main crops grown in small scale farms are yams, cassava, maize, beans, melons, cucumber and vegetables. Thus we see that agriculture is a perfect source of revenue. A community that is able to produce the above products will really save a lot as the cost of living in this country ever soars high.

The members of Orlu Community are experimenting on modern methods of production. Some of their experiments have proved highly successful and rewarding.

They produced tons of maize, yams, and vegetables last year. The Novices and Postulants of 1973 fed fat with the yams from Orlu Community farm.

Agriculture is a worthwhile venture and each Community Should give it a trial.

Bro. Walter Humphry

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